User Management

Supabase makes it simple to manage your users.

When a user signs up, Supabase assigns them a unique ID. You can reference this ID anywhere in your database. For example, you might create a profiles table referencing the user using a user_id field.

Supabase provides the routes to sign up, log in, log out, and manage users in your apps and websites.

Third Party Logins

We currently support the following OAuth providers:

  • Google
  • Github
  • Gitlab
  • Azure
  • Facebook
  • Bitbucket

OAuth Logins.

You can enable providers by navigating to Authentication > Settings > External OAuth Providers and inputting your Client ID and Secret for each.

To fetch these you need to:

  1. Generate Client ID and Secret (google, github, gitlab, bitbucket)
  2. Enter Authorized Redirect URI: https://<your-project> on provider dashboard

Row Level Security

Authentication only gets you so far. When you need granular authorization rules, nothing beats PostgreSQL's Row Level Security. Supabase makes it simple to turn RLS on and off.


Policies are PostgreSQL's rule engine. They are incredibly powerful and flexible, allowing you to write complex SQL rules which fit your unique business needs.

With policies, your database becomes the rules engine. Instead of repetitively filtering your queries, like this ...

const loggedInUserId = 'd0714948'
let { data, error } = await supabase
.select('user_id, name')
.eq('user_id', loggedInUserId)
// console.log(data)
// => { id: 'd0714948', name: 'Jane' }

... you can simply define a rule on your database table, auth.uid() = user_id, and your request will return the rows which pass the rule, even when you remove the filter from your middleware:

let user = await supabase
.select('user_id, name')
// console.log(data)
// Still => { id: 'd0714948', name: 'Jane' }

Policies are like where clauses.

Policies are easy to understand once you get the hang of them. You can just think of them as adding a WHERE clause to every query. For example if you had a policy like this:

create policy "Individuals can view their own todos." on todos for
select using (auth.uid() = user_id);

It would translate to this whenever a user tries to select from the todos table:

select *
from todos
where auth.uid() = todos.user_id; -- Policy is implicitly added.

How it works

  1. A user signs up. Supabase creates a new user in the auth.users table.
  2. Supabase returns a new JWT, which contains the user's UUID.
  3. Every request to your database also sends the JWT.
  4. Postgres inspects the JWT to determine the user making the request.
  5. The user's UID can be used in Policies to restrict access to rows.

Supabase provides a special function in Postgres, auth.uid(), which extracts the user's UID from the JWT. This is especially useful when creating Policies.


Check authentication settings on Supabase

Navigate to Authentication > Settings on, and you'll be able to change settings for things like:

  • SITE URL, which is used for determining where to redirect users after they confirm their email addresses or attempt to use a magic link to log in.
  • Disabling email confirmations
  • Enabling external OAuth providers, such as Google and GitHub

Never use a service key on the client.

Supabase provides special "Service" keys, which can be used to bypass all Row Level Security. These should never be used in the browser or exposed to customers, but they are useful for administrative tasks.

Create a public.users table.

Even though Supabase provides an auth.users table, it is helpful to also create a users table in the public schema, which uses the same UID Primary Key as the auth.users. For security purposes, the auth schema is not exposed on the auto-generated API. Created a public.users table allows you to interact via the Supabase client - especially useful for cross-table queries.

Pro tip: if you want to add a row to your public.users table every time a user signs up, you can use triggers. For example:

-- inserts a row into public.users
create function public.handle_new_user()
returns trigger as $$
insert into public.users (id)
values (;
return new;
$$ language plpgsql security definer;
-- trigger the function every time a user is created
create trigger on_auth_user_created
after insert on auth.users
for each row execute procedure public.handle_new_user();

Disable realtime for private tables

Our realtime server doesn't provide per-user security. Until we build a more robust auth system for websockets, you disable realtime functionality for any private tables. To do this, you can manage the underlying Postgres replication publication:

* Only allow realtime listening on public tables.
-- remove the realtime publication
drop publication if exists supabase_realtime;
-- re-create the publication but don't enable it for any tables
create publication supabase_realtime;
-- add a table to the publication
alter publication supabase_realtime add table products;
-- add other tables to the publication
alter publication supabase_realtime add table posts;

We are aiming to deliver enhanced realtime security by Q1 2021.

Next steps